Lorikeets in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland are mysteriously becoming paralysed, often resulting in death. But now a study by Australian scientists brings us one step closer to identifying the cause.
In a study published in the Australian Veterinary Journal, researchers from the University of Sydney identified the prevalence, distribution, and manifestation of lorikeet paralysis syndrome—a seasonal disease (October to June) that affects thousands of rainbow lorikeets each year in northern NSW and southern QLD.
The syndrome can cause limb, neck, and tongue paralysis, and an inability to blink or swallow, rendering birds unable to fly and feed, and therefore, survive.
“The number of cases each year ranges from hundreds to thousands, making it one of the most important wildlife diseases and animal welfare concerns in Australia,” co-author and University of Sydney School of Veterinary Science Professor David Phalen said.
The researchers are now calling on the public to help identify the likely source of the disease—a plant toxin.
The researchers, including colleagues from RSPCA Queensland and the Taronga Conservation Society, examined lorikeet submissions to the RSPCA in 2017-18. Over a quarter of those submissions were of lorikeet paralysis syndrome.
They identified lorikeet paralysis syndrome hotspots in Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast—but couldn’t determine why this was the case. What they understand, however, are the devasting effects of the disease.
The study found these lorikeets only have a 60 per cent chance of recovery, and their treatment requires intensive care followed by extensive rehabilitation.
The prognosis is better for milder cases, which have a good chance of recovery. An effective treatment could involve restoring kidney function, correcting electrolyte abnormalities, and relieving pain associated with muscle injury.
Based on pathology findings, the researchers ruled out infectious disease like a virus as the cause of lorikeet paralysis syndrome. They settled on a toxin as the most likely cause—yet excluded known toxins that can cause neurological symptoms in wild birds, including pesticides, botulinum toxins and alcohol.
“This leaves us with the most likely suspect—a plant-derived toxin,” Professor Phalen said.
“The seasonal occurrence of the syndrome suggests that the source of the toxin only blooms or has fruit during the warmer months and has a relatively limited range.
“Therefore, the next step is tracking blossoming and fruiting patterns of plants that lorikeets feed on and correlating them with the areas in which lorikeets with the syndrome are found.”
Members of the public can help with this by reporting the plant species wild rainbow lorikeets are feeding on in a designated area that spans from northern NSW to southern QLD.
The original article was published in News & opinion on the University of Sydney website.